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Crude Palm Kernel Oil (Indonesia Origin)

Crude Palm Kernel Oil (Indonesia Origin)
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Country Origin : Indonesia Appearence : White to light yellow, semi-solid
CAS No. : 8025-79-8 H.S. Code : 1511.90.99
Formula : Common Names : CPKO
IUPAC Name :
Packaging : 106 @190 kg HDPE Drum , 20.14 MT/ 20 'FCL
  • Description
  • Application
Brief Overview

 

Crude Palm kernel oil is derived from crushing of palm kernel. It is a liquid at room temperature and light yellow in color. The two oils i.e. palm oil and palm kernel oil derived from oil palm fruit are entirely different in fatty acid composition.

The fatty acid composition, physical and chemical properties of palm kernel oil is very similar to those of coconut oil. Palm kernel oil mainly contains Lauric acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid. It has iodine value 18.5 approximately. Due to high content of lauric acid and low level of unsaturation, gives the palm kernel oil its steep melting point.

It is used to manufacture RBD palm kernel oil, which is used in food industries and oleochemical industries. RBD palm kernel olein is derived by fractionation of RBD palm kernel oil. It is used to manufacture soap noodles blended with palm oil. Lauric acid, palmitic acid and other fatty acid are manufactured form this oil.

 

Manufacturing Process

Crude palm kernel oil (CPKO) is produced from seeds of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) which is harvested from Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq). Following are the steps used in crude palm kernel oil production:

a)    Fruit Reception: FFB is carried in Lorries or trailer from the plantation to the mill.

b)    Sterilization: This process is carried out to prevent further rise in FFA, preparation of the pericarp for further processing and preconditioning of the nuts to minimize kernel breakage.This process is carried out by placing the sterilization cages in horizontal position at 143oC temperature and 3 kg/cm3 pressure for a time period of 60 minutes.

c)     Stripping: This process is carried out for the separation of the sterilized fruit from the bunch stalks and this is achieved by two methods: (a) a small vigorous shaking; (b) beating.

d)    Digestion: In this process, the sterilized fruit is reheated to loosen the pericarp from the nuts and to break oil cells before passing to the oil extraction unit. The digester is a vertical cylinder fitted with a central shaft which carrying a number of radial arms. Digestion is carried out at temperature between 95 to 100oC for a time period of 20 minutes. Heating may be achieved from a steam jacket or by direct steam injection.

e)    Oil extraction: This process is generally carried out using continues screw presses. Continuous screw presses comprise a perforated horizontal cage, in which two screws run together. There are two types of products are obtained from oil extraction process: 1. a mixture of oil, water and solids; 2. a press cake containing fibers and nuts.

f)     Nut and fiber separation: After extraction of palm oil a mixture of nut and fiber is produced. This is fed to a vertical column having upward air flow at a rate of 6m/sec. Here fiber goes up with the flow of air and nut fall down due to gravity.

g)    Nut and kernel treatment:

Ø  Nut conditioning: The nuts coming from nut fiber separator are warm and have some fiber adhered to shell. To avoid sticking of kernel to shell, nuts are cooled down.

Ø  Nut cracking: Preconditioned nuts are fed to nut cracking machine which has a centrifugal motion. In this machine nuts are cracked into two parts kernel and shells.

Ø  Kernel and shell separation: This operation is achieved in two steps: winnowing system followed by hydrocyclone. Winnowing system is used to separate small pieces of shell and dirt. In hydrocyclone, due to very high circular motion of fluid, the heavier part goes to center of the cylinder while the lighter part moves away via the overflow tube.

h)    Kernel drying: The kernel thus obtained has very high content of moisture. High content of moisture will lead to formation of free fatty acid (FFA), to remove this moisture before crushing kernel is dried.

i)      Crushing: Kernels are now crushed into a rotating screw, which gives crude palm kernel oil and palm kernel meal. Crude palm kernel oil is stored to a tank for further processing. Palm kernel meal is used for animal feed.

 



Oil Industry

Palm kernel oil can be used to derive different kind of fatty acids. Lauric acid, myristic acid and oleic acid are derived from palm kernel oil, because these fatty acids are present in large composition compare to other fatty acids. Crude palm kernel oil is also used to manufacture other fatty acids.

 

Other Applications

Palm kernel oil is used to manufacture different kinds of soap noodles. Also, toilet grade, and multipurpose grade of soap noodles are manufactured with the blend of palm oil in varying ration. The quality of soap noodles depend upon the blending ratios of two oils.